I have the 1850 Pendleton Co. Census listing James Riley, age 49; Jane, age 28; John, age 11; James, age 9; George W., age 6; Elizabeth, age 4; Samuel T., age 2. They are listed on schedule page 385.
There is also an Isaac Riley, age 65, who is listed on schedule page 383.
My gg grandfather, Alfred Riley, age 43, with his family is listed on schedule page 339. I know that they lived in the Short Creek/Goforth area of Pendleton Co. I don't know if they were related to your James Riley. I've been searching for a long time for Alfred's parents. I do know that he married Rachel Wiggins in Campbell Co. KY in 1833, but so far have been unable to tie him to any Riley family.
I copied all of the Barton Papers from the Pendleton Co. Library that related to the Riley family and there is no mention of James Riley except that there is a James Riley listed on a page as having had a deed recorded 1877-1879.
The deed page reads as follows: Gerrard Riley, 1831-1841; William Riley, 1833-1846; Sanford Riley, 1836-1841; Alfred Riley, 1836-1874; Jacob Riley, 1845--; Zachariah Riley & c., 1832-1846; John W. Riley, 1832-1846; Ninian Riley & c. 1832-1846; Francis M. Riley, 1860-1862; Rachel Riley & c. 1877--; James Riley, 1877-1879; John F. Riley, 1877-1893, R-127; A. E. Riley, 1877-1889, R-127; William A. Riley, 1878-1890, R-130; James S. & Syntheia, 1880, R-135; Whiting Riley, 1883-1891, R-144; Claude Riley, 1902-1923, R-201; Hattie Riley, 1919-1932, R-182; D. W. Riley, 1915-1919, R-229.
I have been reading from Robert Shean Riley's book "The Colonial Riley Families of the Tidewater Frontier" to try to connect my family to some family in his book. He mentions that Gerrard Riley, son of Ninian Riley, Sr. married Frances Wright and that they moved to northern Kentucky and then moved on to Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri. They had 13 children named Nancy, Ninian III, John Wright, Zachariah, Elizabeth, Sarah (Sally), William Wright, James Hickman, Frances Wright, Garrard Jr., Mary "Polly", and two others who are not named. There are some Alfred Rileys in this family, but none of them are mine. There is a James Riley, son of John Riley, Jr. who lived in Washington Co. KY who would be about the right age for your James Riley, but there is nothing more about him, except his name.
I don't know if any of this will help you, but I would like to hear from you to see if you have anything that will help me with my Alfred. By the way, my Alfred's two sons served in the Civil War for the Confederacy.